What’s in a Name? Whence They Came

– Posted in: Garden Design, Garden Plants, Miscellaneous
Oryza sativa 'Red Dragon'
Oryza sativa ‘Red Dragon’

Fun, fanciful, or even downright silly, cultivar names often offer some clues as to what a plant might look like. If you want a hint as to where that plant might grow best, though, the botanical name is a better place to look. I’m going to save specific place names for another post, but for this one, I’ve collected a bunch of epithets that relate to general plant habitats.

Allium sativum (garlic)
Allium sativum

Many familiar plants have been grown by people for so long that it’s reflected in their botanical name. For “cultivated” in general, there’s sativus (and sativa and sativum), and there are lots of familiar examples: Allium sativum (garlic), Coriandrum sativum (cilantro), Crocus sativus (saffron crocus), Eruca sativa (arugula), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Oryza sativa (rice), and parsnips (Pastinaca sativa).

Atriplex hortensis var. rubra (left) and 'Magenta Magic' (right)
Atriplex hortensis var. rubra and ‘Magenta Magic’

For garden (think “horticultural”) origin, there’s hortense, hortensis, and hortorus (-a, -um), as in Atriplex hortensis var. rubra (red orach), Satureja hortensis (summer savory), and Pelargonium x hortorum (zonal geraniums).

Pelargonium x hortorum 'Black Velvet Scarlet'
Pelargonium x hortorum ‘Black Velvet Scarlet’

Getting more specific, there’s muralis and murale for plants that typically grow in walls; think of Gypsophila muralis (low baby’s breath) and Cymbalaria muralis (Kenilworth ivy). There’s even a name for plants that grow on roofs: tectorum—as in Iris tectorum (Japanese roof iris), houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum), and Elegia [Chondropetalum] tectorum (thatching reed).

As we all know, where there’s cultivated ground, there are usually weeds. Little wonder, then, that so many plants that are common crop weeds have arvensis or arvense – meaning “of cultivated land” – in their name. There are lots of examples for this one, including Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed), and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense).

Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)
Cirsium arvense

For those specifically associated with corn (grain) fields, there’s segetalis, segetale, and segetum, as in Glebionis [Chrysanthemum] segetum, a cute little annual known as corn marigold.

Plants that commonly grow in meadows have their own terms: pratensis and pratense. Among them are Alopecurus pratensis (meadow foxtail), Geranium pratense (meadow cranesbill), Salvia pratensis (meadow sage), and Trifolium pratense (red clover).

Geranium pratense 'Dark Reiter'
Geranium pratense ‘Dark Reiter’

For open fields, plains, or other level places, there’s campestris and campestre, as in Agaricus campestris (meadow or field mushroom) and Acer campestre (field maple). Moving upward, collinus (-a, -um) indicates plants that are found growing on hills or slopes, such as Tiarella cordifolia var. collina (foamflower) and Daphne collina.

Satureja montana
Satureja montana

Epithets that relate to mountainous origins appear in the names of a number of garden plants. For mountain habitats in general, there’s the obvious montanus (-a, -um): Alyssum montanum (mountain madwort), Centaurea montana (mountain bluet), Clematis montana, Pueraria montana var. lobata (kudzu), and Satureja montana (winter savory).

Centaurea montana 'Gold Bullion'
Centaurea montana ‘Gold Bullion’

High in the mountains, above the tree line, is the alpine habitat, indicated in names by alpestris, alpestre, and alpinus (-a, -um). It’s surprising how many of these plants named for this habitat have adapted to life in our gardens, too: among them, Myosotis alpestris (alpine forget-me-not), Alchemilla alpina (alpine lady’s mantle), Clematis alpina (alpine clematis), Dianthus alpinus (alpine pink), Epimedium alpinum (alpine barrenwort), Eryngium alpinum (alpine sea holly), and Ribes alpinum (alpine currant).

Ribes alpinum 'Aureum' with Chaenomeles japonica 'Contorta'
Ribes alpinum ‘Aureum’

And for plants often found growing near or in snow, there’s nivalis and nivale, as in Galanthus nivalis (snowdrops) and Trillium nivale (snow trillium). Other names specifically related to cold regions include frigidus (-a, -um) – Petasites frigidus (arctic butterbur), for example – and glacialis (or glaciale), as in Ranunculus glacialis (glacier buttercup).

Now, let’s forget all that cold and snow and move on to some moist habitats. It’s not surprising that some common water-garden or pondside plants have aquaticus (-a, -um) – for “growing in or near water” – in their name: for example, Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrotfeather) and Orontium aquaticum (golden club).

The banks of brooks, streams, and rivers get their own terms: rivalis, rivale, rivularis, and rivulare. Think of Geum rivale (water avens), Trillium rivale (brook wakerobin), Iliamna rivularis (streambank wild hollyhock), and Cirsium rivulare (brook thistle).

Caltha palustris
Caltha palustris

The words for wetlands – marshes, swamps, and other soggy spots – are palustris, palustre, and uliginosus (-a, -um). Some familiar plants native to these habitats include Equisetum palustre (marsh horsetail), Caltha palustris (marsh marigold), Quercus palustris (pin oak or swamp Spanish oak), and Salvia uliginosa (bog sage).

Crambe maritima
Crambe maritima

Littoralis, littorale, and maritimus (-a, -um) all relate to maritime (coastal) habitats, making them useful clues to plants that might be salt tolerant. Some you may recognize: Armeria maritima (sea thrift), Crambe maritima (sea kale), Pancratium maritimum (sea daffodil), and Prunus maritima (beach plum).

Armeria maritima
Armeria maritima

Sandy places – at the sea shore or elsewhere – have their own epithets: arenarius (-a, -um) and arenosus (-a, -um), as in Arenaria montana (mountain sandwort), Dianthus arenarius (sand pink), and Leymus [Elymus] arenarius (sand rye, also known as blue Lyme grass). There’s an easy-to-remember epithet specifically for desert habitats: desertorus (-a, -um), as in Agropyron desertorum (desert wheatgrass).

Agastache rupestris
Agastache rupestris with Stachys byzantina ‘Big Ears’

Rock gardeners will recognize many of the epithets that relate to plants found growing among rocks, though many of these plants also adapt well to life in ordinary, well-drained beds and borders.

  • Petraeus (-a, -um): Daphne petraea, Dianthus petraeus, Erodium petraeum
  • Rupestris, rupestre: Sedum rupestre, Agastache rupestris
  • Rupicolus (-a, -um): Penstemon rupicola (rock penstemon)
  • Rupifragus (-a, -um): Papaver rupifragum
  • Saxatilis, saxatile: Aurinia saxatilis (basket of gold), Geranium saxatile, and Iberis saxatilis (candytuft)
Sedum rupestre 'Angelina'
Sedum rupestre ‘Angelina’

And to finish, a collection of names that relate to shady, woodland or grove habitats, with ample examples:

  • Nemoralis, nemorale: Dendrobium nemorale, Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod)
  • Nemorosus (-a, -um): Anemone nemorosa (wood anemone), Salvia nemorosa (wood sage)
  • Sylvaticus (-a, -um): Geranium sylvaticum (wood cranesbill), Myosotis sylvatica (wood forget-me-not)
  • Sylvestris, sylvestre: Anthriscus sylvestris (wild chervil), Nicotiana sylvestris (woodland tobacco)
  • Umbrosus (-a, -um): Saxifraga umbrosa, Veronica umbrosa
Myosotis sylvatica ‘Ultramarine’ (woodland forget-me-not) with Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea’ (golden creeping Jenny)
Myosotis sylvatica ‘Ultramarine’ with Lysimachia nummularia ‘Aurea’

Keep in mind that a habitat-related name doesn’t always mean that a plant normally grows in that sort of site. The epithet palustris, for instance, might make you think that Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) naturally grows in swampy spots, but it’s actually most common in upland sites with dry, sandy soil. And don’t expect great performance from Salvia nemorosa (wood sage) in a shady site, despite both the common and botanical names. It’s just another one of those quirky things about nomenclature that keep us from getting complacent, I guess.

Nancy J. Ondra
Nan gardens on 4 acres in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. In the firm belief that every garden ought to have a pretentious-sounding (or at least pretentious-looking) name, she refers to her home grounds as "Hayefield." There, she experiments with a wide variety of plants and planting styles, from cottage gardens and color-based borders to managed meadows, naturalistic plantings, and veggies--all under the watchful eyes of her two pet alpacas, Daniel and Duncan.
Nancy J. Ondra

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island threads December 17, 2010, 5:05 am

thanks for a very helpful post, I keep saying I must learn the latin names of plants this will encourage me too, Frances

One neat thing about this batch is that the botanical and common names are often closely related, so if you remember one, you can often work out the other one without having to look it up (for example, Geranium pratense = meadow geranium, Geranium sylvaticum = wood geranium). With so many names to learn, every little trick is a help.
-Nan

Janet December 17, 2010, 9:40 am

Your series of these names is wonderful. I am the new editor of our Master Gardener newsletter and would like to do an article on this subject. I will credit you and write my own article, is this alright with you?

Sure, Janet!
-Nan

Carolyn @ Carolyn's Shade Gardens December 17, 2010, 9:54 am

Knowing what the Latin names refer to is very helpful in learning about the plants as you have so eloquently pointed out. Thanks for this very educational post. Carolyn

Thanks, Carolyn. It was also interesting trying to track down the reasons for the mis-naming of some of the plants in this batch. I finally found the full story behind the Pinus palustris mixup in another article titled What’s in a Name? (yeah, I know, it’s not a very original title).
-Nan

Town Mouse December 17, 2010, 11:03 am

Thanks so much for engaging the word-nerds among us. What a great post! (Well, I love the whole series).

“Word-nerds”: I *love* it! Brilliant, TM.
-Nan

Garden Sense December 17, 2010, 7:13 pm

In addition to good information on the meaning behind botanical names, you’ve treated us to delightful pictures!

It was much easier finding images for this post than for the others, because there are so many common examples of these origin names. I’m glad you enjoyed the ones I picked.
-Nan

Jessica December 17, 2010, 8:40 pm

You’ve combined two of my favorite things in this post – plants, and language. Thank you!

I was afraid that few would find these worthwhile to read, but it appears there are quite a few of us who like this geeky stuff, Jessica.
-Nan

UrsulaV December 18, 2010, 10:02 am

I just love “uliginosa.” Such a great word.

It does roll off the tongue beautifully, doesn’t it?
-Nan

Toni - Signature Gardens December 18, 2010, 4:52 pm

Oh, there’s so much to learn! Never a dull moment in gardening, is there?

Nope – there’s always something to keep us from getting complacent.
-Nan

gardengirl December 19, 2010, 11:41 pm

What a great informative post. I will have to come back again and again before I have them all in my head.

It’s definitely hard to get these to stick after just one read. I need to take another look myself!
-Nan

Eddy Ceyssens December 24, 2010, 7:57 am

Nice work Nancy. I find it very interesting to know what botanical names refer to. Also for me as a Belgium gardener who speaks dutch, it isn’t easy to know the English (or American) names of the plants. I do know a lot of botanical names so it’s easier to follow a blog when these names are used. Also congratulations for the beautiful pictures!

Thank you, Eddy. I have the same experience when I visit blogs that aren’t in English. With botanical names, I can at least get some idea of what’s in the photos.
-Nan